monte cassino monastery

monte cassino monastery

In early 1944, German parachutists of the 1st Fallschirmjäger Division are sent to the centuries-old abbey on the rocky hill of Monte Cassino in Italy. The former territory of the Abbey, except the land on which the abbey church and monastery sit, was transferred to the diocese of Sora-Cassino-Aquino-Pontecorvo. Abbot Desiderius sent envoys to Constantinople some time after 1066 to hire expert Byzantine mosaicists for the decoration of the rebuilt abbey church. So in Monte Cassino St. Benedict founded a hospital that is considered today to have been the first in Europe of the new era. This school found its original base in the Benedictine Abbey of Monte Cassino still in the 9th century and later settled down in Salerno. It was the Volsci who first built a citadel on the summit of Monte Cassino. As Naples is situated on the crossroad of many seaways of Europe, Middle East and Asia, soon the monastery library was one of the richest in Europe. The second oratory, on the mountain-top, where the pagan altar had stood in the open air, was of the same width but somewhat longer (15.25 meters)."[8]. The abbey is extremely beautiful in itself, with some parts of it dating back to the 6th century and the rest beautifully reconstructed after WW2, according to the medieval layout and architecture. Lacking strong defences the area was subject to barbarian attack and became abandoned and neglected with only a few struggling inhabitants holding out.[4]. The buildings were destroyed by an earthquake in 1349, and in 1369 Pope Urban V demanded a contribution from all Benedictine monasteries to fund the rebuilding. Monte Cassino Monastery is located on the top of one of the hills (519 m above sea level) of the Central Apennine. According to chronicler Leo of Ostia the Greek artists decorated the apse, the arch and the vestibule of the basilica. Montecassino (also spelled Monte Cassino), a small town about 80 miles south of Rome, is the home of the sacred relics and monastery of St. Benedict (480-543), the patron saint of Europe and the founder of western monasticism. According to accounts, "Benedict died in the oratory of St. Martin, and was buried in the oratory of St. Many monks rose to become bishops and cardinals, and three popes were drawn from the abbey: Stephen IX (1057–58), Victor III (1086–87) and Gelasius II (1118–19). No doubt Gregory had this biblical model uppermost in his mind, as is clear from the terms he uses to describe the work of destruction. Cassino is the second most populous city in the province of Frosinone and develops for 1 sq km at the foot of the hill on which stands the famous Montecassino Abbey, Italy's oldest Benedictine monastery together with the monastery of St. Scholastica. Monte Cassino (sometimes called Montecassino) is a rocky hill, around 81 km southeast of Rome in the Latin Valley. +39 392 8866365, Live il blog dell'Abbazia di Montecassino, Donations, Offerings for Services and Legacies, The Tomb of Saint Benedict and Saint Scholastica. In 884 Saracens sacked and then burned it down,[10] and Abbot Bertharius was killed during the attack. Benedictine tradition holds that Scholastica established a hermitage about five miles from Monte Cassino and that this was the first convent of Benedictine nuns. Atop this hill, at 520m altitude is the most glorious and imposing abbey, home to the Benedictine Order, started here by Saint Benedict himself. Subsequent investigations found that the only people killed in the monastery by the bombing were 230 Italian civilians seeking refuge there. The first one which Benedict built in the temple itself was only twelve meters long and eight wide. An earthquake damaged the Abbey in 1349, and although the site was rebuilt it marked the beginning of a long period of decline. During this period the monastery's chronicle was written by two of its own, Cardinal Leo of Ostia and Peter the Deacon (who also compiled the cartulary). Abbot Hugh of Cluny visited Monte Cassino in 1083, and five years later he began to build the third church at Cluny Abbey, which then included pointed arches and became a major turning point in medieval architecture.[11]. The German military forces had established the 161-kilometre (100-mile) Gustav Line, in order to prevent Allied troops from advancing northwards. The building became a national monument with the monks as custodians of its treasures. by the Volsci people who held much of central and southern Italy. De Vogue writes "this mountain had to be conquered from an idolatrous people and purified from its devilish horrors. Monte Cassino (Benedictine monastery) Sources. By the 13th century, the monastery's decline had set in. There has been a monastery here since 570, sacked and re-built on numerous occasions. 57th Field Regiment, RA ? So they began to buy and collect medical and other books by Greek, Roman, Islamic, Egyptian, European, Jewish, and Oriental authors. Soon many monasteries were founded throughout Europe, and everywhere there were hospitals like those in Monte Cassino. The monastic routine called for hard work. The abbey on Monte Cassino was originally founded by Saint Benedict in 529, making it one of Europe's oldest monasteries. In 1321, Pope John XXII made the church of Monte Cassino a cathedral, and the carefully preserved independence of the monastery from episcopal interference was at an end. The 11th and 12th centuries were the abbey's golden age. The Abbey of Monte Cassino which held the Gustav Line in the Geman defences against the allied advance in Italy in WW ii ID: JDW6CA (RM) July 3, 2020 - Montecassino Abbey, Cassino, Italy - Benedictine monastery located on the top of Montecassino is the oldest monastery in Italy. The abbey church, rebuilt and decorated with the utmost splendor, was consecrated in 1071 by Pope Alexander II. Of the first monastery almost nothing is known. "[8], Once established at Monte Cassino, Benedict never left. The trucks were loaded and left in October 1943, and only "strenuous" protests resulted in their delivery to the Vatican, minus the 15 cases which contained the property of the Capodimonte Museum in Naples. Recognizing the defensive value of the terrain, the Germans built the Gustav Line section of the Winter Line through the area. Monte Cassino, in the province of Lazio, is located 81 miles South of Rome is the site of the ancient Roman town of Casinum, but it is best known for its historic Benedictine Abbey that was a focal point for one the most bloody WWII battles. The monastery became known as a center of culture, art, and learning. "The abbot in his wisdom decided that great number of young monks in the monastery should be thoroughly initiated in these arts" – says the chronicler about the role of the Greeks in the revival of mosaic art in medieval Italy. And like conquering Israel, Benedict came precisely to carry out this purification. Martin, however, was thrust out of his monastery into the role of a missionary bishop in the fourth century. This was an isolated and unusual episode in Benedict's monastic career. It acquired a large secular territory around Monte Cassino, the so-called Terra Sancti Benedicti ("Land of Saint Benedict"), which it heavily fortified with castles. [15], The Abbey was rebuilt after the war. The Cathedral of Montecassino Abbey; The Museum of the Abbey; The Modelli Gallery Site of the Roman town of Casinum, it is best known for its abbey, the first house of the Benedictine Order, having been established by Benedict of Nursia himself around 529. Beautiful Monastery and WWII Site South of Rome Perched atop a rocky mountain above the town of Cassino, Montecassino is a beautiful monastery, famous as being the World War II battle site of Monte Cassino. All reviews danila bracaglia san pietro infine day tour monte cassino wealth of knowledge excellent tour private tour train station personal tour river crossing knowledgeable guide delicious lunch his life world war ii an unforgettable experience food and wine once in a lifetime anyone wanting highlight of our trip my dad commonwealth cemeteries new zealand. Its prominent site has always made it an object of strategic importance. Monks caring for the patients in Monte Cassino constantly needed new medical knowledge. This incredible mountain monastery was founded by Saint Benedict in 529 and served as a reminder to locals and travelers alike of the power or prayer. It maintained good relations with the Eastern Church, even receiving patronage from Byzantine emperors. It was very fitting that this should be so, for the Poles have suffered dearly. The second monastery was established by Petronax of Brescia around 718, at the suggestion of Pope Gregory II and with the support of the Lombard Duke Romuald II of Benevento. All the knowledge of the civilizations of all the times and nations was accumulated in the Abbey of that time. According to Gregory the Great's biography of Benedict, Life of Saint Benedict of Nursia, the monastery was constructed on an older pagan site, a temple of Apollo that crowned the hill. At the beginning of 1944, the western half of the Winter Line was held by Germans. It was rebuilt after the war. The abbey was dissolved by the Italian government in 1866. The Gustav Line stretched from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic coast in the east, with Monte Cassino itself overlooking Highway 6 and blocking the path to Rome. The Abbey of Montecassino is one of the most known Abbeys in the world. A Sherman tank can be seen in the background. Monte Cassino (today usually spelled Montecassino) is a rocky hill about 130 kilometres (81 mi) southeast of Rome, in the Latin Valley, Italy, 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) to the west of the town of Cassino and 520 m (1,706.04 ft) altitude. Monte Cassino - Monastery Hill. "[9] In 581, during the abbacy of Bonitus, the Lombards sacked the abbey, and the surviving monks fled to Rome, where they remained for more than a century. The southern end of the valley was protected by large hills overlooking the town of Cassino and atop which sat the abbey of Monte Cassino. Thus, the monastery became the capital of a state comprising a compact and strategic region between the Lombard principality of Benevento and the Byzantine city-states of the coast (Naples, Gaeta, and Amalfi). bill t wrote a review Oct 2020. He wrote the Benedictine Rule that became the founding principle for Western monasticism, received a visit from Totila, king of the Ostrogoths (perhaps in 543, the only remotely secure historical date for Benedict), and died there. A 17-pdr anti-tank gun and crew near Cassino, 17 May 1944. In his earlier setting Benedict "had twice shown complete mastery over his aggressiveness, Benedict is now allowed to use it without restraint in the service of God. He built a chapel dedicated to St. Martin in the temple of Apollo and another to St. John where the altar of Apollo had stood. After the reforms of the Second Vatican Council the monastery was one of the few remaining territorial abbeys within the Catholic Church. So, Montecassino and Benedictines played a great role in the progress of medicine and science in the Middle Ages, and with his life and work St. Benedict himself exercised a fundamental influence on the development of European civilization and culture and helped Europe to emerge from the "dark night of history" that followed the fall of the Roman empire. found: Pantoni, Angelo. That is why the first High Medical School in the world was soon opened in nearby Salerno which is considered today to have been the earliest Institution of Higher Education in Western Europe. 03043 Cassino (Fr), Italy, Tel:  +39 0776311529Email: info@abbaziamontecassino.org, For press contacts and events information, Tel. It was for the community of Monte Cassino that the Rule of Saint Benedict was composed. In another story, Satan taunts Benedict and then collapses a wall on a young monk, who is brought back to life by Benedict. Modern excavations have found no remains of the temple, but ruins of an amphitheatre, a theatre, and a mausoleum indicate the lasting presence the Romans had there. Brigadier John MacFarlane explores the history and impact of the World War II battles surrounding the Italian hill-top monastery of Monte Cassino. The biography records that the area was still largely pagan at the time; Benedict's first act was to smash the sculpture of Apollo and destroy the altar. [22], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}41°29′24″N 13°48′50″E / 41.49000°N 13.81389°E / 41.49000; 13.81389, For information about the World War II battle, see, diocese of Sora-Cassino-Aquino-Pontecorvo, Pontifical Abbey of St Jerome-in-the-City, Diocese of Sora-Cassino-Aquino-Pontecorvo, The Cassino Band of Northumbria Army Cadet Force, "Vatican announces reorganisation of Montecassino Abbey", "Vatican reorganizes Montecassino, mother abbey of the Benedictines", Illustrated article on the Battle of Monte Cassino at Battlefields Europe, Monte Val de' Varri – Monte Faito – Monte San Nicola, Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga National Park, Permanent Observer to the Council of Europe, Palace of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, Palace of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, Pontificio Collegio Urbano de Propaganda Fide, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Monte_Cassino&oldid=995555732, Christian monasteries established in the 6th century, Buildings and structures in the Province of Frosinone, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, House of Retreat for the Clergy of Saints John and Paul, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 18:10. He contrasts this with the 25-year struggle faced by St. Martin of Tours in western Gaul by pagans angry at his attacks on their shrines: "By the time of Benedict, paganism was in a weaker condition in western Europe than it had been in Martin's time. When you are visiting Monte Cassino, you can catch some wonderful panoramic views of the valley from the top of the abbey and see the Polish Cemetery. Early years of the Abbey ; The Golden Age; Modern Era; The Battle of Montecassino ; The Revival of the Abbey ; Pope Benedict XVI visits the Abbey; Abbots of Montecassino; The Reconsecration of the Basilica; Live il blog dell'Abbazia di Montecassino; Heritage. That situation was reversed by Pope Urban V, a Benedictine, in 1367. L/S of the abbey on the crest of Monte Cassino. [2][3], The history of Monte Cassino is linked to the nearby town of Cassino which was first settled in the fifth century B.C. German officers Lt. Col. Julius Schlegel (a Roman Catholic) and Capt. And he summoned the people of the district to the faith by his unceasing preaching. This abbey was founded in the fourth century by Saint Benedict is one of the largest in Italy. On 23 October 2014, Pope Francis applied the norms of the motu proprio Ecclesia Catholica of Paul VI (1976)[1] to the abbey, removing from its jurisdiction all 53 parishes and reducing its spiritual jurisdiction to the abbey itself – while retaining its status as a territorial abbey. [18] Until his resignation was accepted by Pope Francis on 12 June 2013, the Territorial Abbot of Monte Cassino was Pietro Vittorelli. The Abbey of Monte Cassino is charming in its timeless beauty and a marvellous place to engage in prayer and meditation. "[6], Benedict scholars (such as Adalbert de Vogüé and Terrence Kardong) note the heavy influence of Sulpicius Severus' Life of Martin on Pope Gregory I's biography of Benedict, including the account of his seizure of Monte Cassino. Pope Gregory I's account of Benedict's construction was confirmed by archaeological discoveries made after the destruction of 1944. By the 10–11th centuries Monte Cassino became the most famous cultural, educational, and medical center of Europe with great library in Medicine and other sciences. Monte Cassino - 1st Cassino - Monastery Hill February 1944 : This file is also available as a PDF to download - right click here and select 'Save As'. During the Battle of Monte Cassino in the Italian Campaign of World War II (January–May 1944) the Abbey was heavily damaged. [5], Pope Gregory I's biography of Benedict claims that Satan opposed the monks repurposing the site. Discover Montecassino Abbey in Cassino, Italy: This breathtaking monastery was established by Saint Benedict himself 1,500 years ago. Pope Gregory also relays that the monks found a pagan idol of bronze when digging at the site (which when thrown into the kitchen gave the illusion of a fire until dispelled by Benedict). Two German paratroopers fighting among the ruins of the Monastery. +39 0776311529  Email: guide@abbaziamontecassino.org, Email: segreteria.abate@abbaziamontecassino.orgTel. II New Zealand Corps 2nd AGRA (Army Group Royal Artillery) 23rd (Army) Field Regiment, RA ? It was directly subject to the pope and many monasteries in Italy were under its authority. It is the faithful rebuilding of the twenty thousand square meters that people can see travelling on their way along the A1 Highway. A former head of the ancient abbey of Monte Cassino in Italy is under investigation for allegedly stealing €500,000 (£355,000) of church funds and … [21], Another account, however, from Kurowski ("The History of the Fallschirmpanzerkorps Hermann Göring: Soldiers of the Reichsmarschall"), notes that 120 trucks were loaded with monastic assets and art which had been stored there for safekeeping. M/S Benedictine monks walking in grounds of Pershore and Nashdom abbey in Kent. It was a series of four attacks by the Allies against the Winter Line in Italy held by the Germans and Italians. In 1944 during World War II it was the site of the Battle of Monte Cassino and the building was destroyed by Allied bombing. Monte Cassino (today usually spelled Montecassino) is a rocky hill about 130 kilometres (81 mi) southeast of Rome, in the Latin Valley, Italy, 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) to the west of the town of Cassino and 520 m (1,706.04 ft) altitude. The Monte Cassino Monastery during the Second World War was at the center of war events. Monte Cassino was rebuilt and reached the apex of its fame in the 11th century under the abbot Desiderius (abbot 1058–1087), who later became Pope Victor III. Within the centuries the Abbey has met magnificence and destruction many times, and has always come out of its ruins stronger. Some of them study in the library surrounded by ancient books, or make researches in the archive on breathtaking manuscripts. Up on top of the 520 meters high mountain the monastery can easily be seen from far, making it a distinct landmark of the region. As was common in the early days of Christianity, the abbey was built over a pagan site, in this case on the ruins of a Roman temple to Apollo. The history of the battles surrounding the Italian hill-top monastery of Monte Cassino. Home An Introduction Armies Campaigns & Battles The Burma Campaign UK Book Store . In 529 Saint Benedict chose this mountain to build a monastery that would host him and those monks following him on the way from Subiaco. In 1239, the Emperor Frederick II garrisoned troops in it during his war with the Papacy. In Cassino …monastery on the summit of Monte Cassino. Some others host people seeking for a moment of inner peace and serenity. Many physicians came there for medical and other knowledge. It was for the community of Monte Cassino that the Rule of Saint Benedict was composed. The focus increasingly shifted to a particularly conspicuous mountain that dominated the countryside for miles around: the commanding heights of Monte Cassino, which was crowned with a magnificent Benedictine monastery that possessed a fortress-like appearance. From this, we can infer a fairly small community. "[8], Pope Gregory I's account of Benedict at Monte Cassino is seen by scholars as the final setting for an epic set in motion at Subiaco. Taking place between the 17th of January and the 18th of May 1944, Monte Cassino was a series of four Allied assaults against the so-called ‘Winter Line’, a series of German and Italian Social Republic fortifications and installations that aimed to protect the route to Rome from Allied invasion. Paganism was still present here, but he managed to turn the place into a well-structured Christian monastery where everybody could have the dignity they deserved through praying and working. In 1454 the abbey was placed in commendam and in 1504 was made subject to the Abbey of Santa Giustina in Padua. When [Benedict] the man of God arrived, he smashed the idol, overturned the altar and cut down the grove of trees. M/S of the Lord Abbot, head of the Anglican community of Benedictine monks, speaking in grounds of abbey. A remnant of the city below lingered on until it was abandoned by the remaining inhabitants about 866 for the present site, originally called Eulogomenopolis, later San Germano, and since 1871 Cassino. The site was sacked by Napoleon's troops in 1799. The area was further protected by the fast-flowing Rapido and Garigliano Rivers which ran west to east. Ora et labora et lege: this is the motto of Saint Bendict's Rule that the monks still follow in their daily routine. The Benedictines translated into Latin and transcribed precious manuscripts. The Rule of St. Benedict mandated the moral obligations to care for the sick. "[8], While scholars see some similarities between the story of Benedict's encountering demonic phenomena and diabolic apparitions at Monte Cassino with the story of Saint Anthony the Great's temptation in the desert, the influence of the story of St. Martin is dominant – with the resistance of Satan substituting for Martin's outraged pagan populace. He then reused the temple, dedicating it to Saint Martin, and built another chapel on the site of the altar dedicated to Saint John the Baptist. A flourishing period of Monte Cassino followed its re-establishment in 718 by Abbot Petronax, when among the monks were Carloman, son of Charles Martel; Ratchis, predecessor of the great Lombard Duke and King Aistulf; and Paul the Deacon, the historian of the Lombards. And if you are visiting the Abbey you might meet some of them having a walk in the cloisters before they go back to their rooms to pray alone or to gather later for the common prayer. The buildings of the monastery were reconstructed in the 11th century on a scale of great magnificence, artists being brought from Amalfi, Lombardy, and even Constantinople to supervise the various works. Around it had grown up a grove dedicated to demon worship, where even at that time a wild crowd still devoted themselves to unholy sacrifices. [20], In December 1943, some 1,400 irreplaceable manuscript codices, chiefly patristic and historical, in addition to a vast number of documents relating to the history of the abbey and the collections of the Keats-Shelley Memorial House in Rome, had been sent to the abbey archives for safekeeping. [13] However, during the bombing no Germans were present in the abbey. Then it rises three miles above it as if its peak tended toward heaven. The Commander-in-Chief of Allied Armies in Italy, General Sir Harold Alexander of the British army, ordered the bombing. [4], Generations after the Roman Empire adopted Christianity the town became the seat of a bishopric in the fifth century A.D. Director: Harald Reinl | Stars: Joachim Fuchsberger, Antje Geerk, Ewald Balser, Elma Karlowa. Montecassino Abbey (Abbazia di Montecassino) Tours The Abbey of Montecassino is one of the most famous abbeys on earth, due in part to its rich history of destruction and recovery. "The first to demolish it were Lombards on foot in 580; the last were Allied bombers in 1944. The Abbey of Monte Cassino, established in 529 and the oldest Benedictine monastery in the world, was destroyed by Allied bombers on this day in 1944 in what is now acknowledged as one of the biggest strategic errors of the Second World War on the Allied side. The settlement was strengthened in the 9th century by the building… The Volsci in the area were defeated by the Romans in 312 B.C. Is located on the summit of Monte Cassino is discussed: Cassino: …German resistance in three battles... 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